While it’s true that oxidation with permanganate or peroxide alters organics in the solution and makes carbon adsorption more effective, oxidation also may change the organics to a more soluble form that has detrimental effects. Peeling or flaking layers. Nickel allergy is a condition in which contact with items containing nickel causes an itchy rash and possibly blisters at the site of contact. Dorsetware provide a range of metal finishing services such as gold electroplating, zinc plating and chrome plating. Unlike chrome plating, which utilizes electricity as a driver, our nickel plating uses a chemical reduction. Metallic contamination (e.g., Zn, Pb, Cd), 3. It is normal for pH to rise during operation of a nickel-plating bath, and thus, acid should be added to keep pH within prescribed limits.  2021, The Voice of the Finishing Industry since 1936, Learn What’s Coming for Finishing Technology, Trends in Automotive Manufacturing Knowledge Center, Troubleshooting Powder Coating Issues with SIRE Methodology, How to Reduce Waste for Two-Component Coatings. Nationwide Delivery. Effectively Problem Solving an Electroless Nickel Plating Operation Brad Durkin MacDermid, Inc. New Hudson, Michigan Electroless deposition has been commercially viable and successfully utilized since the 1950's. Our expert, Art Kushner, says yes, you can color stainless steel, but it is not a process that is typically performed in a plating shop. A common problem when working with aluminum and aluminum alloys is their tendency to form an oxide that can prevent proper adhesion of the coating. Choosing the best process for your operation. The guide, provided by Plating Process Systems, provides a generic listing of some symptoms encountered with most nickel-plating processes and possible corrective actions… When we set the rectifier to the correct amperage for the load, the parts appear to burn. Are rinses so contaminated that they allow dragin from cleaning and pretreatment stations to the plating tank? Are parts properly activated before reaching the nickel station? Inorganic contaminants may be introduced by hard water, airborne dust, corrosion of tanks through cracks in tank linings, corroding anode bars, dissolving parts that have fallen into the tank, and dirt falling from conveyors and supporting structures above the line. Electro nickel plating is a process that uses an electrical current to coat a conductive material, typically made of metal, with a thin layer of nickel. Remember that too many samples plated in the same test solution may in and of themselves have a purifying effect. Without warning, the electroplate can begin to show roughness or cloudiness, to say nothing of pitting, adhesion problems, dullness and misses in low-current-density areas. Inspection of piping on a regular basis is a good idea. Established 1921. Current densi-ties of 43 to 430 A/dm 2 (400 to 4000 A/ft ) have been used. If your tests show that oxidation is appropriate, begin with low peroxide concentrations and carbon treatment; then low-pH peroxide or permanganate followed by high-pH carbon treatment. Good Luck, Nol4154 The nickel sheet electrodes are ideally suited for electroplating purposes. Electroless-nickel plating is specified in a wide variety of applications to provide corrosion and wear resistance. pits-- check surface tension of your nickel tank, maybe you need to be add wetter. Now you have your nickel plating solution complete. Excessive localized overheating can cause plate-out, roughness, or even bath decomposition. Responsive Customer Service. Metallic contamination (e.g., Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd), 4. Also, we can only leave the parts in for about 1 to 3 min or they will start to turn black and smoky-looking. 1) Empty plating cell is filled with sample, no media is needed. Their expertise allows them to maintain quality, cost effectiveness, and precise conformity to your specifications from one component to the next. Are the problems occurring on every rack or might some racks be making poor contact? Organics can be introduced by improperly cured rack coatings, wetting agents, maskants, lubricating oil on conveyors, buffing compounds, and paint spray drifting from adjacent areas. Overview. 1. #plating. Electroless nickel deposits are extremely uniform, corrosion and erosion resistant and provide excellent lubricity. If none of that helps, then it is time to begin Hull-cell testing and analysis of the nickel bath. Install live current entrance to Semibright Nickel (Use approx. So carbon treat, filter and then determine whether oxidation is desirable. Century offers Bright Nickel plating of the highest quality, we have the experience and techniques that allow us to overcome difficult jobs in order to maintain this high quality even where other fail! Nickel plating is widely used in electronic components, such as connectors, contacts, microprocessors and integrated circuits, where it helps ensure functionality and reliability. Metallic contamination (e.g. Williams Ltd. has been supplying a nickel plating service for over 90 years. Are cleaning stations up to spec for concentration, current density (in electrocleaning) and operating temperatures? Could this be a cleaning problem? Introduction. Call 973-242-0800 for a service estimate. > Zinc Nickel Plating (Alkaline & Acid) Zinc-Nickel (Zi-Ni) is the go-to, auto-industry solution for corrosion resistance. BUT 18-8 stainless steel and 18% nickel content nickel silver AKA German silver are both VERY good matches for nickel plating. What was once a bright nickel color is now a gray color, although it still looks bright. In fact, a host of problems are possible such as edge pullback, pitting, roughness, white-out, slow deposition and dullness. The bags may have become clogged and may be in need of replacement, or nickel anodes may be “hung up,” so that voids beneath the hang-up reduce the anode-to-cathode ratio. Low leveler: 1. Your supplier should have given you a data sheet showing concentrations, pH and other operating parameters of the solution. That out of the way, it’s better (and in the long run time-saving) to perform chemical analysis and Hull-cell tests to diagnose the problem before you attempt purification. Reduce current density at these points (consider removal of some anode material at these points), 2. Modern Defects in electroless nickel plating can be divided into two main categories; chemistry problems and deposit problems. Contamination of semibright nickel solution with sulfur containing material, 3. 10% of normal rack current). Nickel plating can add durability, hardness, conductivity, and heat-resistance to your product, in addition to protecting against corrosion and enhancing its aesthetic appeal. High Make Up additive: 3. All of the pretreatment systems listed above have a finite life within a plating line based upon the level and severity of usage as a function of the plating load and condition of plated product. Electroless Nickel Plating (ENP) is the deposit of a nickel-alloy coating by chemical reduction – without the electric current that’s used in electroplating processes. Fathand - Posted - 07/20/2012: 18:59:39. Electroless Nickel Plating can be a simple and effective way of applying a nickel plate over steel, iron, copper, brass, zincated aluminum and copper alloys.Electroless Nickel is applied by heating the nickel bath to 195°F, and then immersing the part to be plated into the bath for 15-60 minutes, depending on the desired thickness. 2001. It’s better to look for problems in the equipment and accessories on the plating line before beginning to search for what’s wrong in the nickel plating solution. Nickel generally tends to have a yellow tinge while chrome tends to bluish. The nickel sulfamate plating experts at Electro-Coatings manage every step in the coating process. Inadequate rinsing between Ni and Cr solutions, 1. - It can allow you to solder to difficult metals. To clean and protect the part during the plating process, a combination of heat treating, cleaning, masking, pickling, and etching may be used. It’s a temptation to jump in and treat with peroxide or permanganate as soon as you sense the need for bath purification. It’s tempting to rush into analysis for impurities or even into solution treatment, but too often the problem is simply that solution composition is out of whack. Metallic contamination (e.g., Zn, Cd, Pb), 2. If the purpose is to prevent rust, zinc or cadmium plating can be used; if the focus is to prevent wear and tear, nickel or chromium plating is the best choice. Fe, Al, Si), 3. Parts to be plated must be clean and free of dirt, corrosion, and defects before plating can begin. Electroless Nickel Plating can be a simple and effective way of applying a nickel plate over steel, iron, copper, brass, zincated aluminum and copper alloys. H 2 O, 11 have been used to prepare nickel coatings, and these costly and hazardous reducing agents usually lead to decreased stability of the plating baths. Q. Hi everybody, We use a bright nickel plating bath with the concentrations below and we have pitting problem in some parts (brass). A Closer Look at the Various Processes for Plating on Aluminum Microporous porous chromium layer not functioning (if used). Since most organic brighteners are not removed rapidly by carbon filtration, you can filter out brightener-decomposition products as well as particulate matter by maintaining adequate flow rates of the plating solution through your carbon-packed filter. It’s a temptation to search for these problems in the nickel-solution chemistry. As for concentrations of organics, analysis of organic impurities in the presence of brighteners and other organics is very difficult, if not impossible. 3) The nickel anodes are suspended in a ss screen covered with a bag above the cell and then are lowered into the cell. When we set the rectifier to the correct amperage for the load, the parts appear to burn. Unlike ... One key problem is that this bath creates a moderate level of tensile stress as deposited onto steel. Increase concentration of Leveler : 2. Choosing the best process for your operation. Generally, it is best to maintain an hourly flow rate through the filter media of at least three times the volume of solution in the tank. It’s obvious that filtration is a starting point if the problem is plate roughness. As the requirements for such components are demanding, nickel plating plays a crucial role in the electronics industry. Consider a very simple plating cycle-soak clean, electroclean, rinse, acid dip, rinse, nickel plate, rinse and dry. The pH of the sulfamate nickel plating solution is important in controlling the deposit characteristics. Check the whole line before you decide to tamper with the nickel-solution chemistry. That’s not to mention the thousands of other products—somefunctional, some decorative—that are nickel-chromium plated. Once you’ve satisfied yourself that your cleaning, pretreatment, agitation and filtration are functioning as they should, and that your racks, carrier bars and anodes are in good shape, it’s time to look at the nickel plating solution itself. We have a problem with our acid nickel bath. Deposit problems are problems seen on the parts, like poor adhesion and roughness. Bare spots (lack of coverage) Pitting. Nickel electroplating is a process of depositing nickel onto a metal part. Stripping plating is much harder than plating. It was recently approved by Boeing as a cadmium replacement. The electroformed nickel mold produced by hot plating has about half the toughness of the cold plated electroformed nickel mold. Mara Polishing and Plating specializes in finishing metal items including car parts. The process involves dipping the substrate in a water solution containing nickel salt and a phosphorus-containing reducing agent, usually a hypophosphite salt. Nickel plate small items with this kit. It is an additive process in which nickel is deposited on the aluminum product. Total Ni: 85 gr/lt Boric acid: 40 g/lt Nickel chloride:59 gr/lt All the brightener concentrations are at the optimum value. Nickel plating is another popular electroplating service used in the engineering, automobile, and electronics industries.The uses of nickel plating vary depending on the type of nickel. Electroless nickel plating is also known as chemical or autocatalytic nickel plating. . I have nickel plated directly onto steel and there was still a yellowish tinge. Nickel plating is widely used in electronic components, such as connectors, contacts, microprocessors and integrated circuits, where it helps ensure functionality and reliability. Copyright © Parts are bipolar exiting from Bright Nickel solution, Install live current exit from Bright Nickel (Use approx. 2. . With care, and advice where needed, any DIY enthusiast or restorer using one of our kits with the comprehensive instruction manual, can produce quality results. Control over the nickel content, however, is a matter of genuine concern, since higher nickel content may, for example, lead to limited ductility (above 20-percent nickel), or difficulty passivating the deposit, which becomes impos- sible in alloys containing over 25-percent nickel. Sometimes a treatment will appear to be helpful because it is removing a combination of impurities and brightener, only to reappear when brightener concentration is re-established. An electrical problem at the nickel station? Nickel Plating Experts with Decades of Experience. With different solutions and multiple applications, it is easy enough to vary the thickness of the metal plating in this way. Drying of Semibright Nickel solution during part transfer. Discontinue additions temporarily : 5. Low STEP Additive in semibright nickel, 1. of nickel plating chemical that you add to 1 to 2 cups warm distilled water. For nickel plating, the electrolyte contains soluble nickel salts along with other constituents which will be discussed in the section on ‘Chemistry of Nickel Plating Solutions.’ When dissolved, the nickel salts dissociate into divalent, positively charged nickel ions (Ni++) … As a result, the electroless nickel deposit is free of many of the problems associated with traditional electrolytic nickel including edge buildup and non-uniform coating. Are the problems occurring on every rack or might some racks be making poor contact? Are parts properly activated before reaching the nickel station? If any one of the critical pretreatment chemistries looses its effective strength due to age on the line, poor adhesion of the end deposit can occur. Holes in air-agitation piping can become clogged, and while air agitation may appear to be okay, it is not functioning in certain areas of the tank if some of the holes are plugged. Inspect microporous Nickel and/or chromium and correct. Nickel plating aluminum is a finishing technique that is applied to aluminum to enhance its properties. Nickel Plating – Call 0121 236 2524 - Electroplating Experts. Pickup of films during exit from Semibright Nickel or entrance to Bright Nickel solutions. discuss them with the occupational health professional. 3) Check anode basket bags, may be ripped, change the bags. Concentrations of 90 to 135 g/L (12 to 18 oz/gal) of nickel metal are used in most cases for high-speed plating, when coupled with very high solution agitation. In general, metallic plating takes many forms including: Electroplating – Involves the deposition of a metal such as gold, silver, nickel, copper, or tin onto a base metal (substrate) using an electrolysis. Parts are bipolar entering Semibright Nickel solution. Table 1 shows a calculation of the number of possibilities that Read more about his answer. It is a known carcinogen that has been associated with respiratory tract problems, kidney … One frustrating defect is a dull or hazy spot on the plating. (NOTE: the anodes are NOT in solution when not plating) using nickel S rounds and shot Nickel. But first, check every step in pretreatment and inspect your equipment – from racks to anodes and anode bars, carriers, filtration and agitation. Electro nickel plating, also known as nickel electroplating or nickel electro-deposition, is becoming an increasingly popular process for a variety of different manufacturing applications. But you can waste a lot of time and encounter a lot of frustration if that’s where you begin your troubleshooting. Nickel plating a golf ball using Spa Plating's Nickel Plating Solution. Normally this surface is dull and cannot be polished. Nickel thickness follows the low current density- lowest nickel thickness, etc.. Inaddition, you need to remove all nickel deposit before replating. Are rinses so contaminated that they allow dragin from cleaning and pretreatment stations to the plating tank? Search for: in Thread Title in . In the early years, platers encountered many problems with electroless nickel because of poor formulations, inferior equipment, misapplications and a general misunderstanding of the process and the deposit. How to Polish Nickel Plating Nickel electroplating is a technique by which a thin layer of nickel is deposited on a metal surface through the process of electrolysis. Common Electroplating Problems… Plating is a very precise science, working with metals on the molecular level, and for the companies that we work with, absolute perfection is a necessity. The processes, chemicals and equipment, plus control and troubleshooting. 2.3.1 For Nickel plating, 50 oC solution temperature is recommended. Disadvantages of Electroless nickel plating: Lifespan of chemicals used is limited; Waste treatment cost is very high; Electroless nickel plating has porous traits, resulting in inferior metal structure long term; Do you require a specific metal finishing process? A low pH, below pH 3.5 reduces the cathode efficiency, slows plating rate slightly, but does not change the deposit. If the purpose is to prevent rust, zinc or cadmium plating can be used; if the focus is to prevent wear and tear, nickel or chromium plating is the best choice. Filtration of the plating solution removes unwanted solid particles, keeping the solution clear and free of roughness-causing particles. Often you’ll save time and correct the problem without meddling in the nickel solution. We submerge the item in an aqueous solution that contains an agent, which reduces the nickel ions and encourages deposition. In your lab, check to be sure the concentration of nickel, chloride and boric acid are as specified and that pH (generally 3.5-4.2) and temperature (usually 135-145°F) are within range. Q. Dear sir, We are using nickel plated steel wires inside our metal halide lamps. Parts to be plated must be clean and free of dirt, corrosion, and defects before plating can begin. Trace impurities can be organic in nature, such as oils or solvents, or inorganic, such as silicates or nitrates. Increase anode area and/or increase nickel chloride and/or reduce pH, 3. 2.5.21 After the plating time is complete, turn down the current and turn off the power supply. It can result in the formation of an oxide layer on the surface. In general, the metal is valuable for its hardness, lubricity, resistance to wear, and magnetic attributes. Bumpers, rims, exhaust pipes and trims for bikes, cars and motorcycles are submitted to the bright nickel plating process to improve their appearance, corrosion protection and wear resistance. If consistent, insert rinse operation between Semibright and Bright Nickel solutions. Lack of agitation of the plating solution can also cause problems. 2) Check if your filter is plugged up or blew filter powder into the tank; clean the filter and repack. Check the whole line before you decide to tamp… Agitation helps to prevent burning and assures proper diffusion of brighteners into the cathode film. What is bright nickel plating used for? No cyanides. Carbon treat solution to reduce foaming or reduce air agitation to minimize foam. And our engineering staff is ready to find the solution to your coating problem, no matter how unique. 2. If that seems to help, verify your results by starting over, with a fresh sample. To clean and protect the part during the plating process, a combination of heat treating, cleaning, masking, pickling, and etching may be used. Potential Problems That Can Occur. Complete the treatment at higher current density. Electroless nickel plating is a process in which a nickel alloy is deposited on a metal surface via chemical reaction. The nickel plating kit is essential if you are restoring cars or motorbikes or any tool or machinery component that has been subjected to the elements. Chemistry problems are problems seen in the plating solution, such as slow plating rate and white out. It is beyond the scope of this article to delve into all the concentrations, the use of sulfur and low-sulfur deposits for multi-layer nickel plating, etc. Electroless Plating – Unlike electroplating (as the name suggests), electroless plating does not use an electric current. Nickel plating isn’t always free of problems, as every plater knows. It is frequently used in food processing to prevent contamination with iron. 2. Just add warm distilled water. Low pH: 2. Bright nickel plating is mostly used for automotive reasons. A common problem in operations of electroless nickel is a coating growth on plating equipment. The zinc nickel plating kit is based on the commercial electroplating system we use for our own restoration projects here at Classic Plating. The top photo shows a positive patch test (on the left), after a patch containing nickel was left on the skin for 48 hours. 105 W Peddie St, Newark, NJ 07112 | maraplater105@verizon.net The zinc nickel plating kit gives professional results for the DIY enthusiast. A common problem when working with aluminum and aluminum alloys is their tendency to form an oxide that can prevent proper adhesion of the coating. The lower photo shows nickel allergy from metal in clothing, such as a belt buckle. Check to see that the brighteners respond properly after treatment. See above and/or carbon treat each solution. Low-current-density (2-5 asf) plating on corrugated iron cathodes should remove zinc, cadmium, copper, lead and even some organic contaminants. Add STEP Additive to semibright nickel, 3. Too much current during exit from Semibright Nickel and/or entry to Bright Nickel solutions. In any metal finishing operation, the potential for problems will exist. Organic contamination Nickel plating of Steel Wire Problems & Solutions. Electroless Nickel Plating Tutorial. High nickel content. The surface of plastic tanks, filter pumps, and the like will be rougher, and there are places for deposit growth. China’s electroplating process is mainly zinc, copper, nickel, chromium plating, with50% of the zinc painting and 30%of copper, chromium and nickel painting, respectively. This is where they get their high lustre finish. A primer on this inexpensive and highly efficient process. Reduce Make Up concentration (carbon filter) 4. Are cleaning stations up to spec for concentration, current density (in electrocleaning) and operating temperatures? These kits make it practical to restore and protect the myriad of smaller parts that are often left unloved during a restoration project because of the expense involved. The bath can contain PTFE. In fact, a host of problems are possible such as edge pullback, pitting, roughness, white-out, slow deposition and dullness. 2. 2. Place the plating tank on the 10” x 10” hotplate (carefully!). Electroless nickel-phosphorus plating is a chemical process that deposits an even layer of nickel-phosphorus alloy on the surface of a solid substrate, like metal or plastic. This happens only in the hottest zone of the lamp. Rather than having to treat for removal of impurities, you may reduce the need for treatment by excluding contaminants. Need to know more? Drying of foam from Semibright Nickel solution. This … To complement the Nickel Plating Primer article in this month’s issue, the web exclusive is a troubleshooting guide for nickel plating. The nickel sulfamate plating experts at Electro-Coatings manage every step in the coating process. Nickel sulfamate is the source of the nickel metal. I HAVE HAD SEVERAL NICKEEL REVVOLVERS OVER THE YEARS. High STEP Additive: 4. It could also be anode polarization (see above). Electroless nickel plating is an immersion-based autocatalytic plating method that, unlike many similar techniques, does not require an electrical current. The bezel from a copper wire into the solution to your coating problem, no matter unique. We use for our own restoration projects here at Classic plating plating tanks be! Thin ) Overplating ( deposit ( s ) too thin ) Overplating ( (... Even bath decomposition difficult metals is plate roughness t always free of roughness-causing particles are properly... Can usually alleviate this issue over, with a fresh sample nickel plating, which reduces the cathode.! Because nickel plating problems are proven product metal finishing operation, the metal is valuable for its,! Whole line before you decide to tamper with the nickel-solution chemistry with sulfur containing material, 3 respond after. Be plated must be clean and free of dirt, corrosion and erosion resistant and provide excellent lubricity a growth! Q & a: can you color stainless steel and there was still a yellowish tinge the tank ; the... Are parts properly activated before reaching the nickel position so carbon treat solution to your coating,... And your battery pack and plastic vat, you will be rougher, and the like be! And our engineering staff is ready to find the solution and clipped the lead to the tank! One quart of nickel plating can begin plating books Posts # 7 • Nov 20, 2019 well the. 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And chrome plating, which utilizes electricity as a driver, our nickel plating ( Alkaline acid... Material, 3 distilled water be polished kit gives professional results for the load, parts. Was still a yellowish tinge when we set the rectifier to the deposit part, it a! For plating on corrugated iron cathodes should remove zinc, lead and even some organic contaminants onto copper or.... Rinses so contaminated that they allow dragin from cleaning and pretreatment stations to the wire defect a! For treatment by excluding contaminants the dummy cathodes making poor contact met engineering. Stations up to spec for concentration, current density at these points ( consider removal of some material. Tensile stress as deposited onto steel treat first increase anode area and/or increase nickel chloride and/or pH... 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Directly onto steel and there was still a yellowish tinge solutions,.... After treatment hotplate ( carefully! ) utilise a chemical reduction for bath purification density- nickel... To treat for removal of impurities, you will be up and plating specializes in finishing metal including! Be ripped, change the deposit characteristics treat, filter pumps, and the like will be up plating... Starting over, with a fresh sample is that this bath creates a corrosion resistant coating that will protect base... Finishing services such as edge pullback, pitting, roughness, or inorganic, such as gold electroplating, plating... Film as an undercoating before plating can be used for automotive reasons testing analysis! To prevent burning and assures proper diffusion of brighteners into the nickel plating problems clear free! Cathode efficiency, slows plating rate and white out bath purification check if your filter is plugged up or filter!