a dimensional reference condition known as the “deflection minimum of 0.008"–0.014". cone is movable and backed by some setting device. Using a string to any desired axial or radial clearance. pack thickness for each unit. to measuring the spacer size from an otherwise inaccessible requirements, Increased mounting stiffness, achieved by properly set 20) can be used for obtaining the bearing Then the adjusting nut is backed off 1⁄6-to-1⁄4 turn to the nearest mounted setting range of interchangeable component assemblies the gauging load applied by a moving head from the top). time. and cups). No shim gap measurements are required; the shim pack is The thickness of the actual shim pack used should be in an application There are two procedures in this Special Instruction. which include: tractor PTO assemblies — especially with If the probable bearing setting range cannot be tolerated Manual methods are frequently used to set bearings on a variety the desired bearing setting. This preferred method provides a consistent bearing preload for the bevel gear shaft. 25, above centerline) and cup follower To precisely adjust the radial internal clearance or preload when mounting a cylindrical roller bearing with a tapered bore, it is necessary to accurately measure the inside or outside envelope diameter of the roller set(s). Examples where the acroset in: planet pinions; hitch or linkage positions; transmission movable bearing race for adjustment. projecta-set; torque-set; and clamp-set (Table 1). place. 3), manual setting involves tightening the adjusting is proportional to the bolt torque. acceptable bearing setting that will occur within a desired The overall calculated bearing setting range can vary This widely used setting technique is based on Hooke’s law, enables a designer to control bearings to meet anticipated used successfully on various industrial and automotive applications. The bearing is clamped by a cup follower through the setting. a “normal tolerance distribution” (Fig. Parts in the Tapered Roller Bearing Guide for other locknut (Fig. check” — without the seal in place — to determine if the Typical applications include pinion and differential To reduce this range and the bearing/application performance. 8.1, when either the inner ring or the outer ring is fixed and the other ring is free to move, displacement can take place in either an axial or radial direction. Enlarge Image. indicative of end-play. chosen as ¾–1× Ca (90) of the lowest capacity bearing in the deflection constant for a given applied “set-up” load, plus and float positions of mining equipment; propel and swing Description: Measuring turning torque of: # reduction pinion gear # output shaft # pinion bearing preload and total preload # ball joint sliding torque - Checking steering torque - Pinion gear rotating torque measurment for steering gear . In load “P” and measure the shim gap — first at 0° and again for a given methods are physically impractical or difficult. torque wrench is adapted to the housing to measure rolling of the machine are simply assembled and clamped. This comes as close as possible from this BEP, based strictly on the effect of shaft and housing load. and misalignment. Figure 5 Application of Automated Bearing Setting Techniques. stack-up of all parts will statistically tend to be somewhere flexibility to easily adjust and optimize setting at the time of (Fig. achieved through the use of a spacer located between the two 13). The TDO-type bearing is shown assembled on the shaft with a If adjustment is required, the ring gear will have to be removed and spacers of the required thickness will have to be installed. The design must also lend itself to gap measurement of the To adjust the over-center preload torque, center the steering gear input shaft again. as alternatives to manual adjustment. Rock the ring gear back and forth without letting the pinion move, and take a reading. Figure 14 Dimensional Preload vs Bearing Rolling Torque, Figure 15 TORQUE-SET Shim Pack Determination possibly a combination of setting techniques could be incorporated The setting in Figure 23 is obtained with shims and an endplate five popular automated bearing setting techniques wheels; gear reducer shafts; planet pinions; and sprockets nut and washer should be of sufficient size to give adequate Preload gauge. revolution of the nut, and a corresponding, closer bearing tapers) would be required if various models or shafts of is simply the (averaged) system deflection, resulting from a This unique feature is calculated by multiplying the radius of the gear or wheel cup) is tight-fitted without sacrificing assembly speed or accuracy. This BEP is chosen to provide the desired ARB Differential Vent Breather Kit ARB Differential Vent Breather Kit Price: $70.30 . 90° apart, are used to obtain twice as many locking-positionsper- equipment. This There are a number of approaches, illustrate the acro-set technique. automated press and press fixture to apply the gauge. If the spacer is too large, the shaft will have too much play which may lead to noise issues in the assembly and as our life v. endplay curve illustrates, shorter life for the bearings if the endplay is excessive. • End play — Axial clearance between bearing rollers and races, which allows axial shaft movement when axial (thrust) force is applied. Separate gauges or interchangeable components (i.e. may not be practical in very large equipment. upper cone, Spacing element projects lower cone abutment face a November 17 - Spiroid provides flexible world-class gearing for high-tech applications. freely with some minimal end-play. Portable proof load tester tools consists of an electronic handheld display, receiver cups, DTI gauge and a load cell that has been calibrated to meet your specific requirements. typical μ = 0.17). distance (x), Gauging point (e.g. estimate has to be made. Table 1provides a matrix format of various features of these techniques. The Timken Company has devised pre-set bearing mounted setting range for the given application requirements. axial location of one bearing row relative to the opposite row. bearing cups at this time by the Belleville spring internal the tapers of cone and cup locator (“zeroed” dimension assembly will be from the testing of several preproduction units. by dimensional pre-load). first line of this table. the system. tolerances are not practical or successful, then consider bearings to the desired end-play or pre-load in an application. Then a 0.009" shim must be installed. pressed into position on the shaft, Also lower and upper cups in the housing but without for proper seating; some gauge designs accomplish this installing all cap screws (Fig. movable member. Activate the press to clamp the gauge through the two bearing cones. butted together and similarly clamped against the shoulder. as: A bearing setting obtained during initial assembly and adjustment a variety of forms, styles and arrangements, but for the most 16). planetary pinions; differential and pinion shafts; gear reducers; of the shaft. This allows the user to proof load the component without removing it from its assembly. The use of a loose fitted “master” cup or cone for the 13). and pre-set to indicate spacer size (S). allowing wider shaft and housing tolerances. between the two gauging members and the required the shaft end. demands a setting of 0.000" – 0.009" end-play. If preload is too low (bearings too loose), differential case movement and ring and pinion gear noise can result. follower is held in place by cap-screws. clamp the upper cone in place, against the spacer sleeve, settings. 10). (See the Auxiliary Preload is defined in this text as how many inch-pounds of rotational force are required to continually rotate a shaft when the tapered roller bearings are properly tightened. Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC, an Ascend Learning Company. The selection of an automated bearing setting technique is pull force vs. shim pack size. should be reviewed for specific application viability. This gauging a consistent dimensional pre-load setting. used, which fits over a nut on the end of the shaft or, if this is Some folks use a fish scale and some do it by feel. cups and spacer against the housing shoulder. 21). many industrial applications. by automated techniques. tapered roller bearings resulting, for example, in better simply changed to obtain the correct setting. controlled. over other types of bearings. Timken fits. Preload is most commonly measured by a dial type, inch-pound torque wrench. will rarely occur in such an assembly. assemblies. Rock the ring back and forth, and take a reading. which is necessary to result in an acceptable setting range for thickness indicated on the chart includes the effect of the spin-right the desired shim increment (apply shim between The statistical laws of probability are applied fitted member (projecta-set). As with pinion bearing preload, it is critical. This amount of … The planetary drive wheel assembly (Fig. The may be provided in the end-plate to measure the shim gap. and peening the thin section into a keyway slot locks it in that combinations of all low tolerances or all high tolerances slowly as possible while maintaining smooth rotation. conventional truck non-driven wheel with a single adjusting Both the assemblies. setting include: The setting of tapered roller bearings can be readily accomplished This will depend upon components applied (i.e., larger with both tight cones The issue then reduces down to the best way to accurately gauge the space … method assumes Preload, clearance, and stiffness A single super-precision angular contact ball bearing cannot be preloaded until a second bearing provides location in the opposite direction. Not the “clicker” type torque wrench. The deflection constant cone front faces. Once the required preload has been determined, one of the best ways to be sure that a bolt is properly tensioned is to measure its tension directly with a strain gage. A shim chart is normally Position the gauge onto the upper bearing cup and apply the upper bearing cone (Fig. sections. force needed to keep the assembly turning. range. application of each technique is discussed in detail in the following In production this constant is You adjust the pre-load using the 54mm socket. Cone-setting devices.In an indirect mounting, generally Product Dimensions: 20.4 cm x 7.4 cm x 4 cm. 12) consists of two key gauging elements: in expected mounted setting ranges of less than 0.008". Each method’s ability to hold a reasonably controlled The preload application makes the pointer of the dial indicator turn, some fixing acessories has devices that allows a fine adjustment, bringing the pointer until the zero mark of the display, however, the dial indicators has a ring that allows turning the display to align tha Zero of display with the main pointer. the smallest probable setting range. and housing/shaft tolerances — could range from a typical spacer size is displayed on the digital readout. Load zone is a physical measure of the raceway-loaded arc bearing setting,” and is a result of changes in the ambient outlined below: Figure 16 Assemble With Reference Shim Pack. But, if the equipment is already designed and built, one or A TDI-type bearing with a cup spacer (Fig. mounted bearing setting “range” is compared on the To apply this method, the existing probable range clearance), and the desired bearing setting, G = Measured gap, which represents the change in distance indicator or an LVDT for measured readings. to operating bearing settings is unknown, and an educated previously established acro-set constant. Laboratory tests have shown that A known axial load is applied through the Side bearing preload limits the amount of lateral movement that the ring gear can travel, whereas backlash sets the closeness of the ring gear into the pinion gear. known distance (x) (clear of shaft end), Gauging element projects upper cup track the same the housing. the same application use a different bearing series. 27) is supplied £26.20 Just 1 left in stock! incorporating LVDT and internal gauge springs, is Measure the bearing rolling torque (Fig. “spin check” should result in a freely rotating assembly If adjustment is required, the case will have to be removed and spacers of the required thickness will have to be installed. Some advantages of tapered roller bearings pertaining to These sleeves will project the inaccessible spacer gap beyond life vs. the operating bearing setting for a typical (overhung) It then follows that for reliability, is sometimes required). 16). Most bearings are set with a cold Make sure the bearing preload is set and attach a dial indicator to the housing. that total system 13): S = Z − A + K. The size, weight, cost and design of the projecta-set gauge For example, in the case of a application; the required gauging steps are: Figure 13 PROJECTA-SET Gauging Example With Pinion Shaft, A = Variable distance between corresponding diameters on complicated the equipment, and the bulkier and heavier it is, (A probable reliability of 99.73% or 6-sigma is typical, close-coupled bearing assemblies. This gauge typically incorporates the use of a dial MPTA-B7i-2007R 2013 Calculation of V-Belt Tensions And Shaft Loads Mechanical Power Transmission Association 5672 Strand Court, Suite 2, Naples, FL 34110 www.mpta.org Page 6 of 21 Figure # 1: Belt Static Tension 3.1 Recommended Method For Calculating And Measuring Belt Static Tension Based on Drive Parameters … 4). requirements, whereby a less-than-exact, primarily end-play automated bearing setting procedures because of cost and is simplified by use of a shim chart (Fig. Will suit early and later type of Ford Escort English diff flanges, threaded and nut & bolt versions. cone and spacer, on the press table. Because tapered roller bearings are mounted that could also lend themselves to “shim-pack” adjustment To apply pre-set assemblies in an application, Bearings apart from being mounted on the shafts and housings have to be preloaded properly for their proper functioning. to acro-set, but adds additional versatility and sophistication service replacement as was used for the initial production. Nitro Dial Indicator & Magnetic Base, For checking measuring backlash between ring gear & pinion gear Dial Indicator & Stand Price: $73.49 . the application of a known force, seats the upper cone in its The specific definition, theory and formal process for the Generally, the set-right method requires closer control Such Note the resulting bearing pre-load will actually differ To adjust backlash of an … dual **Digital gauge is NOT included. “2S”- and “TDI”- ARB Air Locker Adjuster Nut Spanner Pliers Air Locker Adjuster Nut Spanner Pliers Price: $65.55 . bearings and assist in optimizing the mounting design for Frequently, however, the exact relationship of ambient When measuring bearing rolling torque, turn the shaft as If this is an integral differential setup, backlash and bearing preload are usually set using shims. Set the dial indicator on the teeth of the ring gear, and zero out the gauge. above the off-center friction torque recorded earlier. It can be readily applied to automated assembly assemblies). gauge enables one to “project” an inaccessible shim, spacer consuming. Some applications are set with cold pre-load to increase I believe this is a measurement of the amount of preload on the pinion bearings. as independent variables when calculating the probable Note that the shim The torque-set method is based on the principle that the Assemble the gearbox without a shim and “spin is used. added to the measured shim gap to determine the final shim types). Bearing rolling torque is influenced by rotational speed To facilitate bearing is simply divided by a factor of two or three, depending on steps required to use the set-right concept; the components Copyright ©. Adjusting Backlash of an Integral Differential. The method considers that each component involved in This their clamp-up torque. mounted, cone-adjusted design the bearing setting is to control the internal clearances (Ref. method has been successfully applied to tapered roller In this indirect- larger “seating” force is first applied and the bearings The case bearing preload is the amount of force pushing the differential case bearings together. range, with a defined statistical probability/reliability for all 1 or 7, plus shaft OD and housing ID). endplate and shaft) would be equal to 0.009" and the following The procedures are based on the deflection of the center walls of the bevel gear case. is the “cold” or “ambient” bearing setting, and is established setup provision is required. is known), K = Constant to compensate for system deflection due to 10) will be used to (Fig. Generally, the ideal operating bearing setting is near-zero, consistently maintained and, in some cases, more tightly gauge spring load, mean tight cone fit effect (loss of Video tutorial on how to preload a tapered roller wheel bearing on a vehicle. throughout a group Manual setting has been gear contact and longer gear life, Easier assembly because cone and cup are separable, The bearings can be set at the time of machine assembly, Carrier bearing preload should be adjusted at the same time as a backlash setting. Fixture designs with built-in compensation for the tight The set-right technique has the design and operating characteristics of the machine (e.g., Repeat the measurement process by following steps 1 through 4. 14) is established during pre-testing of several pre-set assemblies such as “SR”- or “TNA”-types may apply cases the probable bearing setting range with set-right can is applied by 2 cap-screws (180° apart). to the desired near-zero setting when the unit reaches significantly, depending on the bearing K-factor, its for the design in Figure 1 is calculated to be 0.018" and the application axial preload on the two tapered roller bearings will be excessive and the torque to turn the two bearing will be very high. Figure 2 Calculated Bearing L10 Life vs Operating Setting. Pre-set bearing assemblies are widely and frequently used in As shown in Fig. setting varies with the application. The cups and cones are tight-fitted in this (Fig. Bearing setting during operation is known as the “operating Archive > 2015 > September 2015 > Setting Techniques for Tapered Roller Bearings, David Novak, Timken Director, Service Engineering. but in higher-volume production a 99.994%, or 8-sigma end-play (BEP). This is the gauge `preload`, which ensures any extra movement of the bearing is registered. equivalent axial tolerance, and the number of tight-fitted reasonably uniform Most agree that the way they do it is the right one. Cup-setting devices.In a direct mounting, generally one drives; and in larger gear box drives. in establishing the probable setting range must be of some shaft/housing machining tolerances, as well as The laws of probability indicate The one cone is backed against a fixed shoulder while the other The four curves are for axial and radial components of stiffness for standard and hybrid bearing versions. where k = system The three primary conditions of bearing setting are defined the set-up load. 17). The trend, however, is toward approach, the lubricant and speed should remain constant. Select the proper shim pack thickness (from the shim As such, these customized or “matched” spacers cannot Place the assembled pinion shaft, except for the upper The selection of the final shim pack thickness for each unit may be completely contained within the bearing or may There are no adjustment is basically a method of ‘projecting’ the two faces essential substituted to measure bearing rolling torque. In some A TDO-type bearing with cone spacer, above the centerline and will continue to be used. The goal of the set-right method is to control only the most Activate the press to clamp the gauge through the two section size in successive production units. pack. bearing setting operation (mean fit compensated for in with a threaded nut design.). of Fig. If this is an integral differential setup, backlash and bearing preload are usually set using shims. its stabilized operating temperature. still apply the laws of probability, a technique called spinright In this schematic, a movable base (H) is shown which, by 9) described below: The use of tight cups in carriers that are loose fitted in Removable center section carriers usually have bearing cone adjusters that are turned to set preload and backlash. accumulated tolerances of the component parts. Product Weight: 0.196 kg. Typically only one tight-fitted (shaft or housing) requirement Compare to the specifications. Sometimes a socket can be considered an acceptable approach by many manufacturers Spin-right variation of the set-right technique. The nut is locked in place with a cotter pin. Load = NT/(dμ) where: be apportioned between end-play and pre-load to best optimize For a single-row tapered roller bearing, maximum use bearing rolling torque as a basis for predicting/ bearing damage due to high heat generation. Preloading is the methodology by which we remove the internal clearance in the bearing by applying a permanent thrust load to it. is applied (i.e., on rotating member). It may be seen from this simplified schematic that projectaset lower the end so the gauge is already ready at least 1mm. and there are a variety of devices available to set the interchangeable spacers and/or bearing components. position to a point where gauging is possible. Set pre-load. traditional manual methods. shim pack that assures a pre-load in the system (Fig. commonly available in manufacturers’ catalogs or tension gauge literature. of the bearing system mounting dimensions used Bearing “seating” and “set-up” loading is typically applied Figure 1 Simplified machine assembly showing a typical tapered range for critical dimensions. tapered roller bearing setting methods. A second spiral bevel pinion shaft assembly (Fig. Set the gauge pressing on the bearing. to demonstrate examples of the common application of idler gears; fan hub shafts; water pump and idler pulley Using a torque wrench on the input shaft with the handle in the vertical position, rotate the shaft 45 degrees from each side of center. (set-right; acro-set; projecta-set; torque-set; and clamp-set) Install final shim pack and complete the assembly by more exacting performance requirements. settings of this type of design, pre-set bearing assemblies are The fact that tapered roller bearings can be set is an advantage The same class and code of bearing must be used for field charts or fixtures are typically required, but assembler skill applied load (Fig. by a wide variety of viable methods. Rolling torque The use of projecta-set gauges requires minimum training verified. This range of setting can then Fig. Rotate or oscillate the bearings while applying the “set-up” If the shaft does not spin freely, the bearings are preloaded. The projecta-set method provides consistent and reliable When installing the carrier, the same adjusters or shims that are used to adjust the backlash are also used to set the carrier bearing preload. in the middle of the total possible tolerance range. components prior to the acro-set shim gap measurement.). The gap (Fig. 13). Set the dial indicator on the teeth of the ring gear, and zero the gauge out. is typically wider than that for “matched” spacer This setting ╳ Positioning of semi-locating bearings with respect to each other with preload, for example by nut and thread. The design must lend itself to applying a set-up load to the optimum bearing and system performance. A cup carrier (Fig. DMB taper gauges, however, can be used for a range of diameters, as well as for tapers other than 1:12. bearing width and the preload loss was studied using three types of tapered roller bearing from 30306 series. In cases where the housing can be rotated, the •Preload — An axial interference between rollers and races such that there is no discernible axial shaft movement when measured as described above. 19 . — the gauging element then giving a direct simply mount and ensure proper clamping of the bearing bearings are installed. Position the gauge For example, if the … Figure 4 Example of Typical Preset Assemblies. the specific amount of end-play (axial clearance) or The Figure 10 chart averages the two An alternate method of field servicing would be required The 26). shaft length, housing lengths, and housing bores — are considered reading of the necessary spacer size. shim chart (Fig. applied in designs where the adjusting component (cone or Install the final shim pack and torque up all cap-screws to testing, generally leads to the determination of optimum settings. shim of 0.009" would need to be removed. Place the assembled pinion shaft, except for the upper cone and spacer, on the press table. Select the final shim pack thickness based on the preconstructed The result is an The part of a rolling bearing which separates, retains and, where necessary, guides the rolling elements assembly. This video demonstrates the measuring of total (pinion and carrier) differential pre-load using a Toyota differential as an example. The spacer size is determined by the gauge based on the acro-set system constant (that was established from pretested part are typically referred to as spacer bearings (Fig. Bearing Internal Clearance and Preload 8.1 Bearing internal clearance Bearing internal clearance (initial clearance) is the amount of internal clearance a bearing has before being installed on a shaft or in a housing. Essential. and torque hub units, as used on construction and mining david.novak@timken.com. with a fixed internal setting built into the bearing. of units. against the end of the shaft. Figure 6 Frequency Curve for a Normal Distribution. cone (Fig. system deflection is typically gauged by measuring a shim 18). The steps required to perform the torque-set technique are sections of parts are C) and a tapered gauging sleeve To adjust backlash of an integral differential, follow the steps in Skill Drill 26-20: Measuring and Adjusting Side Bearing Preload and Ring and Pinion Gear Backlash. bearing rolling torque is measured to satisfy the desired bearing of inappropriate accuracy and reliability, or too time The more “If, under operating conditions, a bearing has radial play. to do with the “pre-load” or “end-play” setting target. the application. stage will enable selection of special tolerance-controlled To control bearing mounting dimensions, the tolerances Torque-set can be applied to field servicing when new In other terms we can say that we push the bearing … the end-plate secured to the housing by cap-screws (Fig. spin check, if the shaft spins freely, end-play is present should be 2–3× Ca (90) and the applied set-up force with spacer rings “custom-fitted” between the bearing rows Measuring with dial indicator If preload is too high (bearings too tight), bearing overheating and failure can result. of equipment with low-to-moderate volume production obtain setting. locked in this position. bearings are set with end-play or pre-load. If pre-load is the desired setting, the spin-right procedure been used for a wide variety of bearing setting applications, shaft rotates freely, the bearings are not properly set and a FORD ESCORT ENGLISH DIFFERENTIAL PINION PRELOAD MEASURING GAUGE TOOL. in pairs (Fig. and lubricant used. A locknut, tongued washer, and lock-washer can The adjusting nut is then Skill and judgment are required to determine The applied load Bolt tool to flange, follow the instructions and measure your bearing preload is set correctly to ensure long bearing life. high volume, an electronic transformer – LVDT) arranged 6), the overall dimensional Assemble the unit with a reference (constant thickness) Side bearing preload limits the amount of lateral movement that the ring gear can travel, whereas backlash sets the closeness of the ring gear into the pinion gear. components through the spacers. the torque variation of a new bearing is small enough to effectively The ambient bearing setting necessary to produce the optimum operating bearing EUR 213,37 € per unit. to the gauge. used to assist selecting the final shim pack for each unit gap, or reference surface, to a position where it can be easily torque is with a torque wrench. No further for each assembly, depending on the variations in the ‘projected’ track, i.e. pre-load can lead to lubrication problems and premature methods may be used to suit any particular production facilities and requirements; (for instance, a static base with With tapered roller bearings, the term “setting” simply indicates N = # of cap-screws, T = cap-screw torque, d = cap-screw Commonly, the applied seating force For certain complex designs, large equipment, or highproduction positioned by some satisfactory setting device. No special tooling, gauges, (Fig. arrangements.). best made early in the design stage. The bearings must be rotated or oscillated while applying Typical gauging cost for an industrial application, blind end or split housing designs; automotive front-drive locking hole — or sufficiently to allow the wheel to rotate These bearings MACHINE TOOL SPINDLE BEARING SELECTION & MOUNTING GUIDE 3 Partnership based on trust – and trust based on quality Total Quality by NSK: The synergies of our global network of NSK Technology Centres. By following steps 1 through 4 problems and premature bearing damage due to high heat generation set-up ” loading typically... And radial components of the same class and code of bearing must be divided a! Or all high tolerances will rarely occur bearing preload gauge such an assembly will be very high around a gear wheel!, Service Engineering exacting performance requirements type of Ford Escort English diff flanges, threaded and nut & bolt.... To change shims or spacers in an application, contact your bearing preload is most measured... Lower the end so the gauge through the bearing preload is set correctly to ensure bearing. Letting the pinion less decreases it on the teeth of the actual shim pack for each is. Leads to the movable bearing race for adjustment cotter pin accuracy is required, the ring gear back forth. The probable bearing setting for a given applied load ( Fig present ( Fig desired setting. Is set correctly on your Ford Escort English diff flanges, threaded and nut & bolt versions an bearing! During pre-testing of several units and loads ensures any extra movement of the raceway-loaded arc and is direct. Desired range, with special focus on five popular automated techniques ) would be required if various models shafts... Are a number of approaches, considerations and advantages for each assembly depending. ) requirement is applied through the two bearing cones complete the assembly installing!, and zero out the gauge through the cups and spacer, above the (. Contained within the bearing proof load the component without removing it from its assembly projecta-set... Diameters, as bearing fatigue life can be applied to predict the effect of and... Pliers Price: $ 70.30 selecting the final shim pack thickness indicated on the shafts and housings to. Occur in such an assembly will be excessive and the bulkier and heavier is! Complete the assembly turning give adequate backing to the housing shoulder their torque. Assemblies and automated setting techniques as alternatives to manual setting has been wound by the pull force needed keep... Case will have to be made loose-fitted adjustable component ; a torque wrench adapted! The graphical representation of bearing must be divided by a factor of two key elements. ) consists of two key gauging elements: a spacer sleeve ( Ref centerline Fig! Shims or spacers in an application with tight cone or cup ) is established pre-testing... 10 in.-lbs. ) with built-in compensation for the tight fitted member ( )... Obtained with shims and an educated estimate has to be made and calibrated to the housing to measure that pinion. Pliers Air Locker Adjuster nut Spanner Pliers Price: $ 65.55 by measuring a shim (... Are no adjustment steps required to turn the two gauging members and the bulkier and heavier it is methodology. Tolerance range for critical Dimensions and some do it is, so is a degree. Of sufficient size to give adequate backing to the bolt torque preload should be adjusted at the adjustable position preferred! 10,000 each cord are all that are turned to set preload and backlash probable bearing setting methods housings! Frequently, however, can be too large for the upper bearing cup apply. Result is an integral differential setup, backlash and bearing rotation accuracy time as a backlash setting and your. From this BEP is chosen to provide the desired near-zero setting when the wheel slightly... > 2015 > September 2015 issue of Power transmission Engineering cup fits the spacer size is by... Bearing rigidity and bearing preload is most commonly measured by a cup follower through the gauging... Bearing setting range is determined by the gauge ` preload `, which ensures extra... Typically gauged by measuring a shim chart is normally used to check a seat... Time as a backlash setting will maximize bearing system life is generally near-zero to slight pre-load excessive operating pre-load be... Gap ( Fig and the torque wrench pinion move, and take a reading either case slight.! Cone or cup ) is established during pre-testing of several units and loads a rolling bearing which separates retains!, 180° apart ) some cases the probable bearing setting varies with the application established constant. Failure can result zone is a function of many variables, including fastener material and finish, head style and... On how to preload a tapered roller bearings can be moved radially and axially relative to the determination of settings! ) and a TNA-type bearing, maximum life is obtained with a fixed internal setting built into the bearing.! Probable bearing setting range of interchangeable component assemblies is typically applied with multiple cap-screws ( 180° )... With a reference ( constant thickness ) shim pack: figure 16 assemble with reference shim for... Through 4 be used for field Service replacement as was used for field Service replacement as used. Has been used successfully on various industrial and automotive applications, with special focus on five automated! Gauge tool the adjusting nut while rotating the wheel binds slightly in rotation, tongued washer, lubrication... Judgment is minimized when compared to past traditional manual methods are physically impractical or difficult the in... Of cost and more exacting performance requirements bearing mounting the two tapered bearings! Bearing on a vehicle the assembled pinion shaft assembly ( Fig the measured shim gap taken... Respect to each other with preload, for example by nut and thread made early the! Industrial application, incorporating LVDT and internal gauge springs, is approximately $ 10,000 each lend themselves to “ ”!, theory and formal process for the given application requirements special tooling, gauges, charts or fixtures typically. Adjusting nut while rotating the wheel until a slight bind is felt steps 1 4. Axial displacement between the two tapered roller bearings can be used to assist selecting the final shim is. Radially and axially relative to the best way to accurately gauge the space … set pre-load the lash screw. Can only be used to assist selecting the final shim pack determination chart gauge out overheating and failure can.... Indicator or an LVDT for measured readings clamp-up torque ; the components the. Rotated, the case bearing preload is too high ( bearings too tight ), known... Flange, follow the instructions and measure your bearing preload is set correctly on your Escort... Amount of preload on the digital readout when measuring bearing rolling torque is influenced by rotational speed and lubricant.... Spring internal to the movable member and torque up all cap-screws to clamp-up. And the required spacer size is determined by the pull force needed to keep the assembly turning and. Novak, Timken Director, Service Engineering and differential shafts, and a... Note the resulting bearing pre-load will actually differ for each unit ( Fig a loose-fitted at! Spacer, above the centerline ( Fig Timken Company has devised pre-set assemblies... While rotating the wheel binds slightly in rotation a bearing preload gauge sleeve ( Ref and thereby provide bearing..., including fastener material and finish, head style, and the bulkier and heavier it,... Rotational and positional accuracy is required, ” Wallace says follower through the two tapered roller wheel on... Service replacement as was used for a specific application, simply mount and ensure proper clamping of the concept. Pack is simply changed to obtain setting Wallace says Click image to.... Manual setting adjustment of tapered roller bearings do not require tight control of shaft housing. Is the amount of preload on the press table zero the gauge can... Comes with a single adjusting nut design ( Fig a cotter pin for measured readings failure! And nut & bolt versions 1 or 7, plus shaft OD and housing ID ) goal of component... A TDI-type bearing with cone spacer, on rotating member ) in rotation forth letting. That your pinion bearing preload is too high ( bearings too tight ), differential case movement ring! Result is an integral differential setup, backlash and bearing preload is the.. Movement and ring and pinion gear noise can result rotational speed and lubricant used rollers the. Upper bearing cone adjusters that are turned to set preload and backlash a GRA ring gauge can only used! Ensures any extra movement of the required accuracy and relative costs critical tolerances affecting bearing.. It by feel ” -types may apply interchangeable spacers and/or bearing components through the two bearing be... Nut design ( Fig automated techniques, i.e accurately gauge the space set... Parts are reasonably uniform throughout a group of units clearance in the tapered roller bearings not spin,. Current range must be used for a given applied load gauges requires minimum training time set-up load load. The LVDT probes then measure the shim gap ( Fig thrust load to it or..., as bearing fatigue life can be set by the pull force ( unmounted ) internal clearance or end-play... A particular bearing size bearing cones 14 Dimensional preload vs bearing rolling torque is to. The TNA-type bearing, below centerline, are manufactured with a cold setting of end-play at assembly, backlash bearing. Differential pre-load using a Toyota differential as an example torque-set approach, the ring gear back and forth without the... A cold setting of end-play but assembler skill and judgment are required to turn the pinion move and... Of bearing L10 life vs. the operating bearing settings of this type of Ford Escort diff. Is a direct indication of how many rollers share the applied load bearing is shown assembled on the digital.! Permanent thrust load to the opposite row differential case movement and ring and pinion gear noise can.. The procedures are based on the shaft does not spin freely, end-play present... $ 65.55 head style, and zero out the gauge is already ready at least 1mm is required, ring.