Assessment results are used to inform the teacher about the effectiveness of curricular and instructional decisions. This issue of Professional Practices, along with the tools and tips mentioned, can assist leadership teams build a shared understanding of rigor when applied to curriculum, instruction, and assessment. ... Use new technologies to seek and display knowledge and connect to resources, experts, and peers across the country and around the world. Access at www.teachhub.com/22-ways-add-rigor-your-classroom. The project therefore required students to write an original piece of historical fiction about the arrival of Columbus in the Caribbean in 1492. Curriculum, Instruction, Assessment, and Standards I n this chapter, curriculum is defined so that readers can have a shared understanding of this key term. Walking and Talking during frequent and regular visits to schools and classrooms are an important part of the leader’s job and provide useful information to better support principals and in turn, help principals support their teachers. The curriculum is the structured set of learning outcomes for a prescribed course of study. © 2016 by Just ASK. The edge of our metaphorical coin represents substantive synthesis projects, or orchestrated efforts in which students apply core conceptual knowledge and strategic processes to create personally meaningful knowledge. Pages 55-57, Betty Jean Eklund Shoemaker and Larry Lewin. L’Anson, Sally. 51% OFF the cover price. Error analysis helps teachers determine why students missed particular questions. From the Taino viewpoint, were the results positive, negative, or both? Marzano, Robert and Michael Toth. Because the unit was taught at the beginning of the year and teachers wanted to show students how to develop a substantive synthesis project, the unit also included a guided dry run on developing a project.
Often teachers become understandably frustrated when told to teach and assess student performance with more rigor. Like the two faces of a coin, curriculum and assessment are inseparably fused. Give small groups of teachers chart paper with the different segments of the definition as headings. We begin by identifying the outcome. Curriculum: What is taught and learned. The answers may be expressed in a variety of forms, including personal interviews, the creation of graphic representations (such as models and concept maps), the generation of metaphorical images, and of course written essay tests. These pieces describe the two major areas of curriculum and assessment; curriculum involves learning core conceptual knowledge and strategic processes, and assessment determines whether core conceptual knowledge and strategic processes have been learned. And, as individuals construct meaning and answers to questions, they naturally come to understand the subjective nature of knowledge. Further, in requiring students to pursue answers, the questions call upon students to produce, rather than just consume, knowledge. Both students and teachers rated the projects as more revealing and more rewarding than traditional instruments. Always debrief as a group once out of the classroom. And the project did require synthesis. Have teachers individually write own definition of rigor which they put aside for now. Instruction: How we teach. Assessment of learning can be either internal assessment or external assessment, the SQA conducted this as they are an awarding body. Future ready curriculum, instruction, and assessment are based on clear expectations that all students will leave the K–12 education system sufficiently and successfully prepared for college acceptance, career pathways, and workplace readiness. Relationship between curriculum and instruction: There is an important healthy tension between curriculum design and instructional design. 47% of the time was spent in strategies associated with lecture, practice, and review compared to 3.2% of the time spent using strategies most critical for developing cognitively complex skills. Linkage requires that educators explicitly delineate the relationship between what students need to know and be able to do (learning standards), how learning is expected to occur (curriculum), and how progress is measured (assessment). It is our role, as the educational leader to ensure that every child who is in our school works on the specified curriculum and masters that curriculum as evidenced by the state’s summative assessment. A team of three 8th grade teachers at one of our middle schools has developed a 12-week Literacy Block unit focusing on relationships. Rutherford, Paula. Other “first reading” strategies employed by expert readers include making predictions, asking questions, and relating new information to prior knowledge. Instructional Rounds and Learning Walks are regular and structured visits to classrooms to observe strong research-based conditions for success. As the leader, reserve your feedback until others have spoken. Students demonstrate their conceptual understanding by constructing personally meaningful yet plausible answers to the key questions. They can evaluate both substantive synthesis projects and answers to key questions. The note-taking tool Observable Conditions can assist in framing the feedback for school leaders and teachers. Once the faces have been designated, what will we teach and assess? In addition to this overall goal, we sought a K–12 curriculum that would: After about two years, it became clear that, although a number of district sites were trying to incorporate the district's goals into classroom practice, teachers were having trouble assimilating all the pieces. At the end of the quincentenary study, the teachers wanted to gauge how well students understood the key concepts and how effectively they could apply the writing process. To answer this question, visualize the coin cut into two interlocking pieces. Put the data chats or meetings on your internal school calendar, that way they get the priority they need.
What motivated Columbus to explore the New World? These strategies are the vehicles we use to drive learning. What we should be seeing is evidence of students wrestling with new content as they build stamina required to reach higher levels of thinking. This question is about the curriculum. They also had difficulty talking about the changes with colleagues, parents, and community members. The focus is always on the student learning. communication, which includes reading, composing/creating, speaking, performing, and listening; thinking, which takes in problem solving, decision making, and investigating; and. Monday through Friday
Then, we create our vision of what it looks like when we get there. All rights reserved. When using backward design, I begin with the curriculum in order to determine the desired outcomes. Assessment. What do all schools with high student achievement share? Larchmont, NY: Eye on Education, 2012. The data is alarming. From a Spaniard's viewpoint, were the results positive, negative, or both? Rigor is Not a Four-Letter Word. It reflects the type and frequency of assessments common in most districts. A process of passing judgment, on the basis of defined criteria and evidence is called evaluation. Watch this video lesson to understand the relationship between instruction and assessment. Although aligning standards with curriculum and assessment is necessary, in itself it is insufficient to achieve the linkage advocated for by Carr and Harris. We have identified three extremely important clusters of strategic processes that, if mastered, enable students to learn how to learn: To execute these processes, experts apply four generic steps. Access at www.marzanocenter.com/files/Teaching-for-Rigor-20140318.pdf. Leadership team meetings are where you obtain information on how the principal supports and guides teachers to improve, enhance, and increase their performance. To answer this question, visualize the coin cut into two interlocking pieces. The Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority defines formative assessment in the following terms: ‘Formative assessment is an integral part of the teaching and learning cycle. Where am I going? We wanted to focus instead on creating connections among several concepts within conceptual themes like communities, systems, change, power, interactions, form or structure, relationships, and identities. One face of the coin represents curriculum; the other face, assessment. I often speak with teachers and always speak with students about what they are learning, as opposed to what they are doing.
This method demonstrates how curriculum, pedagogy and assessment are interlinked. I am reminded by Paula Rutherford, “If you are in a classroom and cannot talk with a teacher, there is too much teacher talk.” She’s right. Only 6% of observed lessons were devoted to highest levels of cognitively complex tasks involving generation and testing of hypotheses. A strategy is a mental maneuver made up of one or more skills. Horizontal coherence targets the connection between curriculum, instruction, and assessment, with teachers at the center of the system. What were the characteristics of the interactions between Columbus, his crew, and the Taino Indians? Have the group listen to an Eduleadership podcast, narrated by Justin Baeder, (This source should not be confused with ASCD’s Ed Leadership. Formative assessment enables teachers to identify what a student can currently do and plan the next steps to progress student learning. We teach students to use such processes as reading, writing, and problem solving, and we expect them to expand the use of these processes to other learning contexts. The Curriculum Guidance for the Foundation Stage (QCA, 2000) recognises the importance of observation and assessment in relation to effective teaching and learning in early years settings. Gather information about what students know and can do. My colleague, Bruce Oliver, author of the monthly newsletter, Just for the ASKing! The "written" curriculum should therefore be expressed in comprehensive and user-friendly documents, such as curriculum frameworks; subject curricula/syllabuses, and in relevant and helpful learning materials, such as textbooks; teacher guides; assessment … Alexandria, VA: Just ASK Publications, 2015, p 107. This quotation is from an article describing attempts to supply evening education to working men which appeared in The Penny Magazine of December 13, 1834, a magazine … Alexandria, VA 22311-1714. Try taking along the Questions for Getting Students Talking and Questions for Getting Teachers Talking (see below) on your next classroom walk-through. The Professional Standards for Educational Leaders compel education leaders to approach every action, classroom walk-through, teacher evaluation, interaction with the central office, every vendor, every request for teacher professional development, every expenditure of funds, and every analysis of data with one question in mind: How will this help our students excel as learners who meet or exceed standards? Larchmont, NY: Eye on Education, 2008. ________. ), The most common misconceptions about rigor, and the top mistakes schools make when trying to increase rigor, Why rigor is for everyone, not just honor students, What’s new—and what’s not—in the Common Core State Standards when it comes to rigor, How teachers can help students with special needs do truly rigorous work, How school leaders can promote a culture of rigor in their schools. Paula Rutherford offers the most precise and understandable definitions and distinctions for curriculum, instruction, and assessment, and when I have used these in conversations, the differences among the three elements become crystal clear. Many “aha” moments occur and questions surface that lead to real problem identification and solution seeking among staff. To evaluate the core conceptual knowledge piece of the coin, teachers graded stories according to (1) the degree of in-depth understanding and integration of factual information concerning the events of 1492–97, and (2) the degree to which students had addressed the key concepts of interactions, power, justice, exploitation, cause and effect, and point of view. These tools are better at looking for frequency of act, not quality of implementation of the act, so choose the behavior to be counted carefully (for example, students can explain what they are supposed to be learning, types of questions, pauses for processing, calling on patterns). Standard 4’s approach to leadership is optimistic and stresses the importance of academic rigor as well as support and care for students to excel. The Changing Curriculum
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