much later in interpreting Plato.  Proclus brilliantly demonstrated that even in the theistic system the world though generated must be eternal, because the “world is always fabricated … is always becoming to be.”  Proclus believed, as did Philo, that the corporeal world is always coming into existence but never possesses real being. 91 views . But this position is rather alien to biblical and rabbinical understanding. The characteristic feature of the Greek scientific approach is the biological interpretation of the physical world in anthropocentric terms, in terms of purpose and function that may apply to biological and psychological realities but may not be applied to the physical world. En savoir plus. As a basis for the “scientific” approach he uses the worldview presented by Plato in Timaeus which remained influential in Hellenistic times. Maren R. Niehoff , Max Cooper Professor of Jewish Thought at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, trained in Jerusalem, Berlin, and Oxford and at the Harvard Society of Fellows. From this follows that life in accordance with nature hastens us towards virtues (Mos. Therefore, the middle person of the three, being attended by each of his powers as by body-guard, presents to the mind, which is endowed with the faculty of sight, a vision at one time of one being, and at another time of three; of one when the soul being completely purified, and having surmounted not only the multitude of numbers, but also the number two, which is the neighbour of the unit, hastens onward to that idea which is devoid of mixture, free from all combination, and by itself in need of nothing else whatever; and of three, when, not being as yet made perfect as to the important virtues, it is still seeking for initiation in those of less consequence, and is not able to attain to a comprehension of the living God by its own unassisted faculties without the aid of something else, but can only do so by judging of his deeds, whether as creator or as governor. To the mind uninitiated in the mysteries, unable to apprehend God alone by himself, but only through his actions, God appears as a triad constituted by him and his two powers, Creative and Royal (Abr. Philo follows the ideas of the Stoics that nous pervades every part of the universe as it does the soul in us. The only firmly dated event known in Philo (FI-loh) of Alexandria’s life is his participation in a delegation sent by Alexandrian Jews to the emperor Caligula in 39-40 c.e. 80, 122. The rational part of the soul, however, is breathed into man as a part of God’s substance. leg. He had a deep reverence for Plato and referred to him as “the most holy Plato” (Prob. 22) into four primordial elements: For it is out of that essence that God created everything, without indeed touching it himself, for it was not lawful for the all-wise and all-blessed God to touch materials which were all misshapen and confused, but he created them by the agency of his incorporeal powers, of which the proper name is Ideas, which he so exerted that every genus received its proper form (LA 1.329). 50-52). Cher. 1.328). By developing this doctrine he fused Greek philosophical concepts with Hebrew religious thought and provided the foundation for Christianity, first in the development of the Christian Pauline myth and speculations of John, later in the Hellenistic Christian Logos and Gnostic doctrines of the second century. 90). But the most universal of all things is God; and in the second place is the Logos of God”(LA 2.86). 65; Mos. 201-204; Fug. Philo Judaeus, ca. 49; Sacr. Rate it * You Rated it * 0. It exists as such before everything else all of which are secondary products of God’s thought and therefore it is called the “first-born.” The Logos is thus more than a quality, power, or characteristic of God; it is an entity eternally generated as an extension, to which Philo ascribes many names and functions. Consult various editions of Philo's works: MANGEY (2 vols., London, 1742); COHN AND WENDLAND, I-V (Berlin, 1896-1906); CUMONT, De Æternitate Mundi (Berlin, 1891); CONYBEARE, Philo about Contemplative Life (Oxford, 1895); HARRIS, Fragments of Philo Judæus (Cambridge, 1886); WENDLAND, Neuentdeckte Fragmente Philos (Berlin, 1891).Writings: GROSSMANN, De Philonis … Gig. He was a descendant of Aaron, and belonged to one of the wealthiest and most influential families among the Jewish merchant-princes of Egypt. Though he acknowledges the symbolic meaning of these rituals, he insists on their literal interpretation. Une expérience de lecture optimale pour le même confort qu'un livre papier. These men were often influenced by the Greek culture in which they lived and wrote apologies for Judaism. Op. and Eudorus of Alexandria, as well as elements of Aristotelian logic and ethics and Pythagorean ideas. U. S. A. And further, Philo finds in the Bible indications of the operation of the Logos, e.g., the biblical cherubim are the symbols of the two powers of God but the flaming sword (Gen. 3.24) is the symbol of the Logos conceived before all things and before all manifest (Cher. 31). Philo was thoroughly educated in Greek philosophy and culture as can be seen from his superb knowledge of classical Greek literature. For God’s will is not posterior to him, but is always with him, for natural motions never give out. 264). 1.155), and an unjust man is the one “who transgresses the ordinances of nature” (Spec. Philo differentiated between philosophy and wisdom.  To him philosophy is “the greatest good thing to men” (Op. Thus the Logos, eternally created (begotten), is an expression of the immanent powers of God, and at the same time, it emanates into everything in the world. Philo of Alexandria (a.k.a. The works of Philo Judaeus Item Preview remove-circle Share or Embed This Item. Center for Philosophy and Socinian Studies I Life: Philo of Alexandria (b. about 20 ,small>B.C. Therefore, Philo asserts that the aspect of God which transcends his powers (which we have to understand to be the Logos) cannot be conceived of in terms of place but as pure being, “but that power of his by which he made and ordered all things called God, in accordance with the etymology of that name, enfolds the whole and passes through the parts of the universe” (Conf. Creative Power, moreover, permeates the world, the power by which God made and ordered all things. 59; Abr. As the largest repository of Jewish law apart from the Talmud before the Middle Ages, Philo’s work is of special importance to those who wish to discern the relationship of Palestine and the Diaspora in the realm of law (halakah) and ritual observance. 1.182; Op. Philo relates that in an inspiration his own soul told him: …that in the one living and true God there were two supreme and primary powers, Goodness [or Creative Power] and Authority [or Regent Power]; and that by his Goodness he had created every thing; and that by his Authority he governed all that he had created; and that the third thing which was between the two, and had the effect of bringing them together was the Logos, for it was owing to the Logos that God was both a ruler and good (Cher. 65; Mos.1.283). Philo’s work does not form a well-organized corpus. These include That Every Good Man Is Free, proving the Stoic paradox that only the wise man is free; On the Eternity of the World, perhaps not genuine, proving, particularly in opposition to the Stoics, that the world is uncreated and indestructible; On Providence, extant in Armenian, a dialogue between Philo, who argues that God is providential in his concern for the world, and Alexander, presumably Philo’s nephew Tiberius Julius Alexander, who raises doubts; and On Alexander, extant in Armenian, concerning the irrational souls of animals. 16:16; Her. to see the emperor. He dedicated his life to the service and defense of Judaism. Referring to Genesis 18: 2 Philo claims that God and his two Powers are in reality one. But at the same time Philo claims that the needs of the body should not be neglected and rejects the other extreme, i.e., the practice of austerities. Emphasis on Contemplative Life and Philosophy, Philosophy and Wisdom: a Path to Ethical Life, Philo’s Mysticism and Transcendence of God, Source of Intuition of the Infinite Reality, Doctrine of Miracles: Naturalism and Comprehension, Doctrine of the Logos in Philo’s Writings, Universal Bond: in the Physical World and in the Human Soul, Immanent Mediator of the Physical Universe, Editions of Philo’s works and their translations. 4. Philo believed that man’s final goal and ultimate bliss is in the “knowledge of the true and living God” (Decal. Omissions? The third group includes historical-apologetic writings: Hypothetica or Apologia Pro Judaeos which survives only in two Greek extracts quoted by Eusebius. He came from a wealthy and the prominent family and appears to be a leader in his community. That Philo experienced some sort of identity crisis is indicated by a passage in his On the Special Laws. 25 BC – 50 AD (Philo Judaeus) Philo tells us that Synagogues began around 262 BC in Alexandria Egypt “From ten kings or more who reigned in order, for three hundred years [ie. The year was 39-40 AD. De Plantatione; According to Philo, Moses called manna “the most ancient Logos of God (Det. Addeddate 2018-01-05 14:59:01 Identifier … Please make sure to choose a rating. Philo of Alexandria, a Hellenized Jew also called Judaeus Philo, is a figure that spans two cultures, the Greek and the Hebrew. 99. The Alexandrian Jews were eager to enroll their children of secondary school age in Greek gymnasiums, institutions with religious associations dedicated to the liberal arts and athletics; in them, Jews were certainly called upon to make compromises with their traditions. When the scripture uses the Greek term for God ho theos, it refers to the true God, but when it uses the term theos, without the article ho, it refers not to the God, but to his most ancient Logos (Somn. 23-28; Plant. For example, Philo envisions that the world is suspended in a vacuum and asks, how is it that the world does not fall down since it is not held by any solid thing. 1.283). leg. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Philo was a member of a prominent Jewish family in one of the largest Jewish communities in the early Roman world. Philo of Alexandria (Philo, of Alexandria) Online books about this author are available, as is a Wikipedia article. 3.1-6). Det. His father had apparently played a prominent role in Palestine before moving to Alexandria. 95. 31-32). Philo writes in reference to the Old Testament expression that God “breathed into” (equivalent of “inspired” or “gave life to”) inanimate things that through this act God extended his spirit into humans (LA 1.37). 166; QE 2.68). Plato designates this primordial unorganized state of matter a self-existing Receptacle; it is most stable and a permanent constituent: “It must be called always the same, for it never departs at all from its own character” (Plato, Timaeus 50b-c). As it happens, we have an excellent witness to events in Judaea and the Jewish diaspora in the first half of the first century AD: Philo of Alexandria (c25 BC-47 AD). 167-168). Moreover, that Mosaic Law is not inconsistent with nature. Because of this we have a conscience that affects even wicked persons (QG 4.62). Jos. Quod Deus Sit Immutabilis; His writings provide the clearest view of this development of Judaism in the Diaspora. The Logos is the Cupbearer of God. Addeddate 2006-08-24 13:24:39 … Philo (20 B.C.–50 A.D.), known also as Philo of Alexandria (Greek: Φίλων ὁ Ἀλεξανδρεύς, Hebrew: ידידיה הכהן Yedidia Hacohen), Philo Judaeus, Philo Judaeus of Alexandria, Yedidia, "Philon", and Philo the Jew, was a Hellenistic Jewish Biblical philosopher born in Alexandria. Appendix. This picture is somewhat confusing because we learn that in the final analysis the Creative Power is also identified with the Logos. 77). Philo (20 B.C.–50 A.D.), known also as Philo of Alexandria (Greek: Φίλων ὁ Ἀλεξανδρεύς, Hebrew: ידידיה הכהן Yedidia Hacohen), Philo Judaeus, Philo Judaeus of Alexandria, Yedidia, "Philon", and Philo the Jew, was a Hellenistic Jewish Biblical philosopher born in Alexandria. Was the world created ex nihilo or from primordial matter? God’s essence is beyond any human experience or cognition, therefore it can be described only by stating what God is not (via negativa) or by depriving him of any attribute of sensible objects and putting God beyond any attribute applicable to a sensible world (via eminentiae) because God alone is a being whose existence is his essence (Det. 102). 53-54), which they acquired because of a gift of reason from God (Op. leg. The only mention of Jewish education in his work indicates how relatively weak it must have been, because he speaks only of Jewish schools that met on the Sabbath for lectures on ethics. He belonged to a wealthy and cultured family, prominent in the Jewish community in Alexandria. 103). Philo had contacts with the highest level of Roman authorities. Little is known of the life of Philo. De Abrahamo; The Logos is the Bond of the universe and mediator extended in nature. The next level down represents those limited to the sensible world, unable to perceive the intelligible realities (Gig. It may be assumed that Philo was a product of such an education: he mentions a wide range of Greek writers, especially the epic and dramatic poets; he was intimately acquainted with the techniques of the Greek rhetorical schools; and he praises the gymnasium. They are not, however, beings existing separately, only exist in the mind of God as his thoughts and powers. De Cherubim; 8; Somn. Out of Stock Here belong also: Questions and Answers on Genesis and Questions and Answers on Exodus (aside from fragments preserved only in Armenian). His extensive corpus is an important source of early Jewish biblical interpretations. 1.239; Conf. 97-103). "It is a melancholy reflection upon the history of the Jews that they … Through most schools of Greek philosophy, this term was used to designate a rational, intelligent and thus vivifying principle of the universe.