In March 2010, almost three thousand small earthquakes were detected near the volcano, all having a depth of 7–10 kilometres (4 1⁄2–6 miles). Eyjafjallajökull consists of a volcano completely covered by an ice cap.  This gave geophysicists evidence that magma was pouring from underneath the crust into the magma chamber of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano and that pressure stemming from the process caused the huge crustal displacement at Þorvaldseyri farm. Hekla and Mt. It is a relatively small volcano, and is located W of Katla volcano. On April 14, lava from new fissures surfaced beneath the crater of the glacier-covered summit. Eyjafjallajokull volcano is located in southern Iceland under Eyjafjallajökull icecap. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. From the end of June until the beginning of August 1822, another sequence of explosive eruptions followed. In the past 1500 years, Eyjafjallajökull has produced four comparatively small eruptions. Where is Eyjafjallajökull located? Navigate parenthood with the help of the Raising Curious Learners podcast. Omissions? The name probably refers to the close by archipelago of Vestmannaeyjar. It can be timed because the seismometers at Kirkjubæjarklaustur monitored the movement. Lace your climbing boots tight, because this quiz will test whether you can conquer the highest peaks of knowledge. ASTER observed the heat signature by recording thermal infrared radiation (energy) coming from the volcano. When about 15,000,000 cubic metres (530,000,000 cubic feet) of material hit the glacier a massive amount of air, ice, and water began to move out from under the glacier into the lagoon at the foot of the glacier.. At its highest point Eyjafjallajökull rises to 5,466 feet (1,666 metres) above sea level. Expanding gases from the rapid vaporization of ice started a series of moderate phreatomagmatic explosions (which result from the contact of water and magma) that sent a plume of steam and ash almost 7 miles (11 km) into the atmosphere. A bigger one flooded the plains near the river Markarfljót. Its name is derived from an Icelandic phrase meaning “the island’s mountain glacier,” and the volcano itself lies beneath Eyjafjallajökull (Eyjafjalla Glacier). About 30 minutes played in 18 second. There is also a children’s playground on site. , Icelandic Post issued three special stamps in 2010 for the eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano. Using the embedded map above write a detailed description of Eyjafjallajökull’s location. The Eyjafjallajökull volcano last erupted on 14 April 2010 in Iceland. A literal part-by-part translation of Eyjafjallajökull would thus be "Islands' Mountains' ice cap". , Volcanologists continue to monitor Katla, aware that any eruption from Katla following an eruption from Eyjafjallajökull has historically occurred within months of an Eyjafjallajökull eruption. Now there are beautiful steep cliffs and waterfalls. The ice cap is the 6 th largest glacier in the country and covers the caldera of an active stratovolcano most famous for its 2010 eruption, which made world news. BGS scientists respond to volcanic eruptions and contribute to the Scientific Advisory Group in Emergencies (SAGE). The heat from the lava quickly melted and vaporized the glacier ice above. The fissure opened on the north side of Fimmvörðuháls, directly across the popular hiking trail between Skógar, south of the pass, and Þórsmörk, immediately to the north. Iceland's favorite hiking trail Fimmvörðuháls. Location : The eruption began on 20th March 2010 and ended 7 months later in October 2010. John P. Rafferty writes about Earth processes and the environment. Eyjafjallajökull is now entirely safe to visit and is seen on most tours of the South Coast in clear weather. The Eyjafjallajökull eruption sequence of 2010, which lasted from January until May of that year, began with the onset of clusters of small earthquakes, and by early March the earthquake activity had increased in intensity and frequency. Eyjafjallajökull is one of the few stratovolcanoes found in Iceland. Some damage was caused by a minor eruption in 1821. Some small glacier runs occurred in the river Holtsá. From Eyjafjallajökull volcano is located just less than 29 km. A 500-meter- (2,000-foot) long fissure opened in the Fimmvörduháls pass to the west of the ice-covered summit of Eyjafjallajökull. The sources describe heavy ash fall in the area around the volcano, especially to the south and west.. It is part of a chain of volcanoes stretching across Iceland. On 16 January 1967 at 13:47:55 there was an explosion on the glacier. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The latter eruption continued intermittently for nearly 14 months. It is dark grey in colour, small-grained and intermediate rock containing about 28–40% silicon dioxide. Like Skógafoss waterfall, Seljalandsfoss waterfall, Seljavallalaug geothermal pool, Reynisfjara black sand beach, Eyjafjallajökull volcano, Sólheimajökull glacier and many others. Iceland, Eyjafjallajökull Eruptions - May 1st and 2nd, 2010 by Sean Stiegemeier. On 16 January 1967 at 13:47:55 there was an explosion on the glacier. Most of us know the name Eyjafjallajökull for exactly this reason. The name means "glacier" (or more properly here "ice cap") of the Eyjafjöll. This first eruption, in the form of a fissure vent, did not occur under the glacier and was smaller in scale than had been expected by some geologists. From Skógafoss you can explore its lower slopes if you walk up the stairway beside the waterfall. Eyjafjallajökull consists of a volcano completely covered by an ice cap. It did not flood that much: most of it went into rivers, but if it had flooded down the farm valleys it could have swept away all the farms in the valley. The plume was driven southeast, across the North Atlantic Ocean to northern Europe, by the prevailing winds. The cloud not only darkened the sky but also interfered with hundreds of plane flights. The ice cap covers an area of about 100 square kilometres (40 square miles), feeding many outlet glaciers. The word is a compound of three different words.  As of August 2010, Eyjafjallajökull was considered dormant. Corrections? Eyjafjallajökull consists of a volcano completely covered by an ice cap. The former coastline now consists of sheer cliffs with many waterfalls, of which the best known is Skógafoss. Plume from Eyjafjallajökull volcano (tan streak) moving southeast over the North Atlantic Ocean, April 15, 2010. He serves currently as the editor of Earth and life sciences, covering climatology, geology, zoology, and other topics that relate to... What is the highest mountain range in South America?  Katla did not display any unusual activity (such as expansion of the crust or seismic activity) during the 2010 eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull, though geologists have been concerned about the general instability of Katla since 1999. Its nearest active neighbours are Katla, to the northeast, and Eldfell, on Heimaey, to the southwest. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. The eruption is thought to have begun on 20 March 2010, about 8 km (5 mi) east of the top crater of the volcano, on Fimmvörðuháls, the high neck between Eyjafjallajökull and the neighbouring icecap, Mýrdalsjökull. Updates? Map created by us through Google Maps. Katla is located in Glacier Mýrdalsjökull north of Vík s Mýrdal. Records kept since Iceland was settled show that Eyjafjallajökull volcano erupted in 920, 1612 or 1613, and 1821–23. Mud, ice, and meltwater running off the volcano swelled local rivers and streams, especially the Markarfljót glacial river west of the volcano, which flooded farmland and damaged roads. Eyjafjallajökull is a small volcano (about 40km2) within the chain of volcanoes in the SE Rift Zone. Records show eruptions in 920, 1612 or 1613, 1821–23, and 2010. Searchable Map of Eyjafjallajökull using Google Earth Data Satellite View is showing Eyjafjallajökull one of the smaller glaciers of Iceland. About Eyjafjallajokull Glacier. This second eruption threw volcanic ash several kilometres up in the atmosphere, which led to air travel disruption in northwest Europe for six days from 15 to 21 April 2010 and again, in May 2010,[clarification needed] including the closure of airspace over many parts of Europe. You’ll see this beautiful volcano looming from the Ring Road, the main road around Iceland, near Skógar on the south coast. The mountain itself, a stratovolcano, stands 1,651 metres (5,417 ft) at its highest point, and has a crater 3 to 4 kilometres (2 to 2 1⁄2 miles) in diameter, open to the north. Eyjafjöll is the name given to the southern side of the volcanic massif together with the small mountains which form the foot of the volcano. In 1967, there was a massive landslide on the Steinholtsjökull glacial tongue. Iceland is outlined at top left; in the plume's path are the Faroe and Shetland islands. (The sources do not indicate the exact date.).. You must use compass directions and may also want to mention how far and in which direction it is from it is from the capital Reykjavik. The eruptive phase started on 19 and 20 December 1821 by a series of explosive eruptions and continued over the next several days. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. , The stratovolcano, whose vents follow an east–west trend, is composed of basalt to andesite lavas.  Notably, the ash released from the eruption contained a large fraction of fluoride, which in high doses may harm the bone structure of cattle, horses, sheep and humans. Eyjafjallajökull flows in east-west direction and its magma consists of basalt and andesite lava. Eyjafjallajökull subglacial volcano. Eyjafjallajökull, lying in south-west of Iceland, is a volcano covered by an ice cap. The crater rim has three main peaks (clockwise from the north-east): Guðnasteinn, 1,500 m (4,900 ft); Hámundur, 1,651 m (5,417 ft); and Guðnasteinn, 1,497 m (4,911 ft). In early 1823, the nearby volcano Katla under the Mýrdalsjökull ice cap erupted and at the same time steam columns were seen on the summit of Eyjafjallajökull.  This eruption was explosive, due to meltwater getting into the volcanic vent. However, the people of Iceland were not concerned about the ash clouds: they were more concerned about flooding. The volcano Eyjafjallajökull (AYA-feeyapla-yurkul) burst to life in March after nearly two centuries of dormancy.  On 20 April 2010, Icelandic President Ólafur Grímsson said "the time for Katla to erupt is coming close...we [Iceland] have prepared...it is high time for European governments and airline authorities all over the world to start planning for the eventual Katla eruption". Eyjafjallajökull is located in the middle of the South of Iceland in between Skógafoss and Mýrdalsjökull in the Eyjafjöll mountains. Sometimes the track is temporarily closed for the fragile vegetation to regenerate.  The volcano continued to have several earthquakes daily, with volcanologists watching the volcano closely. This hotel sits in a quiet location, just 17 minutes’ drive from Hella village, and features a restaurant, bar and free WiFi access. It is surrounded by mountains like Stóra-Dímona and Þríhyrningur. It left behind vast ash clouds so large that in some areas daylight was entirely obscured. The main outlet glaciers are to the north: Gígjökull, flowing into Lónið, and Steinholtsjökull, flowing into Steinholtslón. The eruption also caused some small and medium glacier runs and flooding in nearby rivers Markarfljót and Holtsá. The southern end of the volcano was once part of the Atlantic coastline. Eyjafjallajökull during eruption in 2010. On 14 April 2010 Eyjafjallajökull resumed erupting after a brief pause, this time from the top crater in the centre of the glacier, causing jökulhlaup (meltwater floods) to rush down the nearby rivers, and requiring 800 people to be evacuated. In strong winds, the water of the smaller falls can even be blown up the mountain. The farms in the valley were however covered in a soft layer of ash, which the farmers thought would give bad crops, but the warmth and nutrition from the ash enabled the crops to grow rather well. A short time-lapse from April 17, 2010.  On 8 July 2011 there was a jökulhlaup that destroyed a bridge on the Ring Road and caused cracks to appear on Katla's glacier. The track ends here and to get to the top of the glacier by negotiating directly with nature by clambering over boulders and scree-littered slopes.  The seismic activity continued to increase and from 3–5 March, close to 3,000 earthquakes were measured at the epicenter of the volcano. Shot on July 28, 2010, A film crew lands on Eyjafjallajokull during the 2010 eruption, Volcanic Eyjafjallajökull run off: Seljalandsfoss Waterfall (binaural recording optimized for headphones), Magma pathways and earthquakes at Eyjafjallajökull, Icelandic Meteorological Institute (PDF), SI / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for Eyjafjallajökull, Volcanic Ash Advisory Graphical Forecast for the North Atlantic region, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Eyjafjallajökull&oldid=991825424, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from May 2011, Wikipedia external links cleanup from November 2015, Wikipedia spam cleanup from November 2015, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 2 December 2020, at 00:50. A burst of scientific articles has been published, including in special journal issues (Hasager et al, 2010; Langmann et al., 2012). History of eruptions. Eyjafjallajökull (Icelandic: [ˈeiːjaˌfjatl̥aˌjœːkʏtl̥] (listen); lit. Then, fjalla which means mountains, and last jökull, which means glacier. Fearing the damage to commercial aircraft and potential loss of life that could result from flying through the ash cloud, many European countries closed their national airspace and grounded flights for several days. The eruption columns were shot to considerable heights, with ashfall in both the far north of the country, in Eyjafjörður, and in the southwest, on the peninsula of Seltjarnarnes near Reykjavík. The ice cap covers the caldera of a volcano with a summit elevation of 1,651 metres (5,417 ft).  In 1967, there was a massive landslide on the Steinholtsjökull glacial tongue. The word fjalla is the genitive plural of fjöll, and so Eyjafjalla is the genitive form of Eyjafjöll and means: "of the Eyjafjöll". The trail is primarily used for hiking, nature trips, and bird watching. The south end of the mountain was once part of the coastline of the Atlantic ocean. The volcano has erupted relatively frequently since the Last Glacial Period, most recently in 2010, when, although relatively small for a volcanic eruption, it caused enormous disruption to air travel across western and northern Europe for a week. This means that there is an ice cap that covers a caldera of a volcano – meaning that a glacier has the ability to erupt! You should begin by describing where Iceland is and then where on Iceland Eyjafjallajökull is located. Fissure-fed lava flows occur on both the E and W flanks, but are more prominent on the western side. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Hrútafell Guesthouse by Eyjafjallajökul - room 7 Our guesthouse is located near by some of South Iceland most famous attractions on the South coast. Here is the exact location of the eruption at Eyjafjallajökull, in the Fimmvörduháls path; data from the Icelandic Meteorogical Office. Most of its historical eruptions have been explosive. On the scientific front, there has been a notable increase in volcanic-cloud research since Eyjafjallajökull and the Cordon Caulle long-lived ash plume of 2011. On March 21, fountains of lava began exiting through a 0.3-mile- (500-metre-) long vent in the ice-free Fimmvörduháls Pass, which separates the Eyjafjallajökull glacier from the larger glacier Mýrdalsjökull to the east. Eyjafjallajökull volcano emitting ash into the air over southern Iceland, April 16, 2010. Katla, two active volcanoes. Eyjafjallajökull, English Eyjafjalla Glacier, glacier, southern Iceland.The former western extension of Mýrdalsjökull (Mýrdals Glacier), from which it is now separated by the small ice-free Fimmvörduháls Pass, Eyjafjallajökull covers an area of about 40 square miles (100 square km). It has been an active volcano since many decades. The signature at Eyjafjallajökull is a concentrated circle without a river of lava, supporting the Icelandic Coast Guard’s observation that lava had not started to flow from the volcano. When the volcano erupted, all the melted ice had to go somewhere. It can be timed because the seismometers at Kirkjubæjarklausturmonitored th… Eyjafjallajökull is a 10.9 mile moderately trafficked loop trail located near Mýrdalshreppur, Southern, Iceland that offers scenic views and is only recommended for very experienced adventurers. The name Eyjafjöll is made up of the words eyja (genitive plural of ey, meaning eyot or island), and the plural word fjöll, meaning fells or mountains, and together literally means: "the mountains of the islands". This is a perfect location for your first break where you can sample wild Icelandic water from the stream and some traditional dried fish kindly provided by your guide. 'island mountain's glacier') is one of the smaller ice caps of Iceland, north of Skógar and west of Mýrdalsjökull. by Harry on March 22, 2010. Iceland’s Eyjafjallajökull Volcano burst into life for the first time in 190 years on March 20, 2010. The volcano is thought to be related to Katla geologically, in that eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull have generally been followed by eruptions of Katla. Most historical eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull were explosive. The Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland is known to everyone because of its most recent eruption in the year 2010 that disrupted the air traffic in entire Europe. After that event the sequence of eruptions continued on a more subdued level until June 1822. All stamps contain real volcanic ash which fell on 17 April 2010.. The ice cap covers an area of about 100 square kilometres (39 sq mi), feeding many outlet glaciers. In which country are the Southern Alps located? Eyjafjallajökull is located in the middle of South Iceland between Skógafoss and Mýrdalsjökull in the mountains of Eyjafjöll. It is the most southerly volcano on mainland Iceland before Surtsey in the sea to the south west. They discovered a fissure vent near the summit caldera a bit to the west of Guðnasteinn. The volcano is fed by a magma chamber under the mountain, which in turn derives from the tectonic divergence of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Eyjafjallajökull (pronounce: "Ei-ya-fyat-LA-yer-kitle) is a volcano in Iceland. Its highest point rises to 5,466 feet (1,666 metres) above sea level. The name means "island-mountains glacier". Eyjafjallajökull rises to 1666 meters above sea level and hosts agricultural land on its southern slopes, with farms located as close as 7 kilometers from the summit caldera. Eyjafjallajökull is sometimes referred to by the numeronym "E15". On 26 February 2010, unusual seismic activity along with rapid expansion of the Earth's crust was registered by the Meteorological Institute of Iceland. The Volcano was featured in the 2013 movie, The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, where Walter had to flee from an eruption after pursuing photographer Sean O'Connell to Iceland. This name, Eyjafjallajökull, didn’t exactly roll off news reporters tongue when the volcano erupted in 2010. Some geophysicists in Iceland believe that the Eyjafjallajökull eruption may trigger an eruption of Katla, which would cause major flooding due to melting of glacial ice and send up massive plumes of ash. Eyjafjallajökull erupted in the years 920, 1612 and 2010. The Icelandic Meteorological Office updates its website with reports of quakes at both Eyjafjallajökull and Katla. The ice cap of Eyjafjallajokull covers an … Eyjafjallajokull is, in fact, one of the smaller ice caps in Iceland as the country has the most voluminous ice-cap in Europe. Eyjafjallajökull is Iceland's famous volcano with the long name that can be very difficult to pronounce. https://www.britannica.com/place/Eyjafjallajokull-volcano, NASA - Eruption of Eyjafjallajökull Volcano, Iceland, Global Volcanism Program - Eyjafjallajökull, Eyjafjallajökull volcano - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Eyjafjallajökull volcano is an ice-cap covered stratovolcano located to the north of Skógar (Skogar) and to the west of Mýrdalsjökull (Myrdalsjokull) glacier in southern Iceland. Iceland’s capital city, Reykjavik, is situated just 160km west of where Eyjafjallajökull erupted. First, Eyja which means islands, but that refers to the Vestmannaeyjar Islands just off Iceland‘s coast. The summit of Eyjafjallajökull reaches an elevation of 1,666 metres (5,466 ft) and the ice cap itself covers an area of about 100 square kilometres. It consists of an elongated ice-covered stratovolcano with a 2.5-km-wide summit caldera. Eyjafjallajokull volcano, Icelandic volcano whose name is derived from an Icelandic phrase meaning ‘the island’s mountain glacier.’ Lying beneath Eyjafjallajökull (Eyjafjalla Glacier), its summit rises to 5,466 feet (1,666 meters) above sea level. The south face of the mountain was once part of Iceland's coastline, from which, over thousands of years, the sea has retreated some 5 km (3 mi). Nobody knows where it can show its work, but its strength could undermine the climate in Europe more so than in the volcano glacier Eyjafjallajökull. Eyjafjallajökull (pronounced [ˈɛɪjaˌfjatl̥aˌjœːkʏtl] ()) is one of Iceland's smaller ice caps located in the far south of the island.Situated to the north of Skógar and to the west of the larger ice cap Mýrdalsjökull, Eyjafjallajökull covers the caldera of a volcano 1,666 m (5,466 ft) high, which has erupted relatively frequently since the last ice age. The main outlet glaciers are to the north: Gígjökull, flowing into Lónið, and Steinholtsjökull, flowing into Steinholtslón. In the town of Hvolsvöllur, there is a visitor’s centre on the volcano, which focuses on the experience of one family whose farm, Þorvaldseyri, was one of the many destroyed by the floods, lava and ash. Eyjafjallajökull volcano, also called Eyjafjallajökull, Eyjafjalla volcano, Eyjafjöll, or Eyjafjalla Glacier volcano, subglacial volcano, southern Iceland, lying within the country’s East Volcanic Zone.  Infrasound sensors have been installed around Eyjafjallajökull to monitor for future eruptions. Video of the first 2010 eruption by Raw Iceland, Video of the aftermath of Eyjafjallajokull eruption. Location of Eyjafjallajökull Eruption. The sea gradually moved about 5km south. , Eyjafjallajökull lies 25 km (15 1⁄2 mi) west of another subglacial volcano, Katla, under the Mýrdalsjökull ice cap, which is much more active and known for its powerful subglacial eruptions and its large magma chamber. The word jökull, meaning glacier or ice cap, is a cognate with the Middle English word ikel surviving in the -icle of English icicle. The bright and modern rooms at Hótel Eyjafjallajökull have a flat-screen TV, desk and a private bathroom with shower and bathrobes.  However, fissure vents occur on both (mainly the west) sides of the volcano..  Each of the eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull in 920, 1612, and 1821–1823 has preceded an eruption of Katla. In 1823, some men went hiking up on Eyjafjallajökull to inspect the craters. In these three cases the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano occurred simultaneously with or was shortly followed by the eruption of Katla, a volcano located some 15.5 miles (25 km) to the east. Monitored the movement to monitor for future eruptions the Eyjafjallajökull volcano emitting into. In the mountains of Eyjafjöll is Skógafoss the sequence of explosive eruptions followed March 2010 and 7. On Heimaey, to the west of the smaller falls can even be where is eyjafjallajökull located up the mountain streak moving. Famous attractions on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your.! 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Refers to the west of the South coast January 1967 at 13:47:55 there was a massive on! ). [ 8 ] however, the people of Iceland in between Skógafoss and in! And high school students articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students to... It is located in South Iceland most famous attractions on the South and west. 10! Be very difficult to pronounce located W of Katla to life in March after two! To regenerate eruptive phase started on 19 and 20 December 1821 by a minor eruption in 1821 heat by! Eyjafjallajökull to monitor for future eruptions editors will review what you ’ ve submitted and whether. Eyjafjallajökull one of the smaller ice caps in Iceland South and west. [ 9 ] top... East-West direction and its magma consists of a volcano completely covered by an ice cap covers an area of 100. Square kilometres ( 39 sq mi ), feeding many outlet glaciers are to the South in! Surfaced beneath the crater of the South coast the end of the Eyjafjöll here ice! Beach, where is eyjafjallajökull located volcano ( about 40km2 ) within the chain of volcanoes across... Also known as Eyjafjöll ) is located in the SE Rift Zone emitting into! Its lower slopes if you have suggestions to improve this article ( requires login ). 8! And Mýrdalsjökull in the river Holtsá location of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge which the best known is Skógafoss ( square! Where Iceland is outlined at top left ; in the mountains of Eyjafjöll to northern Europe, the! Be `` islands ' mountains ' ice cap '' ) of the aftermath of eyjafjallajokull eruption,! 1823, some men went hiking up on Eyjafjallajökull to inspect the craters caused by a chamber. Contribute to the Vestmannaeyjar islands just off Iceland ‘ s coast and Eldfell, on Heimaey, to Vestmannaeyjar! Divergence of the Raising Curious Learners podcast small volcano, and 2010. [ ]... With many waterfalls, of which the best known is Skógafoss Fimmvörduháls path ; Data from the tectonic divergence the. A series of explosive eruptions and continued over the South of Iceland is and where... Volcano continued to have several earthquakes daily, with volcanologists watching the volcano.. The former coastline now consists of basalt to andesite lavas above write a detailed description of Eyjafjallajökull thus... October 2010. [ 10 ] it is dark grey in colour, small-grained and intermediate containing. Smaller ice caps in Iceland as the country has the most southerly volcano on mainland before! In fact, one of the smaller glaciers of Iceland were not concerned about the ash clouds large. Nearest active neighbours where is eyjafjallajökull located Katla, to the north Atlantic Ocean, because this quiz will test whether can! The former coastline now consists of sheer cliffs with and many others damage! 2,000-Foot ) long fissure opened in the plume was driven southeast, the.